Thursday, September 3, 2020
Hereditarily Modified Foods - Research Paper Example Hereditarily adjusted nourishments otherwise called biotech food sources are food sources that are made misleadingly. In contrast to other common nourishments, hereditarily changed nourishments are delivered from hereditarily altered life forms (GMOs). Most hereditarily changed nourishments delivered by hereditarily adjusted life forms are crops. The harvests created from hereditarily changed living beings incorporate maize, wheat, beans, tomatoes and rice to make reference to however a couple. GMOs are life forms that had changes in their bodies which were finished by the presentation of certain hormones into their bodies (Halford 2003). These progressions were not quite the same as the mutational changes that are done to different living beings by hereditary architects. The business selling of hereditary changed food items is accepted to have started in 1994. Researchers or rather hereditary designers started to deliver hereditarily changed yields since they needed to control the e xpanding worldwide appetite by at that point. The hereditarily adjusted harvests experience quicker development dissimilar to the regular yields (Halford 2003). In this manner, this assisted with controling the hazard of appetite. Hereditarily created crops are additionally impervious to pathogens and different sorts of vermin. This makes them to be delivered in huge sums enough to cook for the rising total populace. It was likewise discovered that the characteristic harvests did not have a few supplements, for example, iron and calcium. In this manner, the creation of GMOs started since they delivered additional supplements which were useful to youngsters and pregnant moms. Be that as it may, after certain years, the creation of hereditarily changed food items confronted solid resistance from world organizations.... What's more, the paper likewise examines the potential answers for the issues brought about by the hereditarily delivered food items. Contradicting perspective There have been crusades which energize the gracefully of hereditarily changed items in the worldwide market. A few associations, for example, the European Union started to restrict the business offer of the items on the grounds that the association accepted that the items were bad for human wellbeing. A few researchers were against the plan to empower the creation of hereditarily altered food items. Notwithstanding, one researcher who was mainstream in light of his genius GMO crusades was known as Thierry Vrain. Vrain in his crusades gave elective points of view and proposed various strategies for tending to the issue of hereditarily changed food items. In any case, Vrain proposed that the development of common yields through water system is tedious and consequently ought not be upgraded. He additionally recommended that the offer of hereditarily altered food items ought to be improved comprehensively. Vrain likewise upheld biotechnology which energized the creation of hereditarily altered food items. He demonstrated his backup pulling back from a gathering of researchers who held gatherings to battle against the hereditarily adjustment of food items. Notwithstanding, as indicated by this reported exploration paper, VrainÃ¢â¬â¢s remain on hereditarily adjusted food items is seen as invalid. This is on the grounds that the normally developed yields, for example, maize, wheat, tomatoes, and beans among others were seen as exceptionally solid and of good quality (Halford 2003). Particularly among pregnant moms and small kids, they were found to give certain supplements, for example, iron and calcium which are not found in hereditarily changed
Saturday, August 22, 2020
string(29) and controlled by one force. Remote Technology Paper Stephen Wenclewicz, Ronda Wilson, Matthew Tiemens, Sheleada Wells, Annabelle Franklin DeVry University Tech, Society and Culture LAS432 Professor Laurence Hornibrook Table of Contents Introduction to Wireless Technology4 Overview of Wireless Technology5 Science that Drove Wireless Development 6 Signal Types10 Wireless Network Infrastructure12 History of Wireless Technology15 Social Factors that Drove Wireless Technology19 Wireless Technology Timeline24 Political Effects on Development28 Legal Issues Related to Wireless Technology30 Lawful Concerns Related to the Development of Wireless Technology31 Economics in Relation to Wireless Technology33 Psychological contemplations and sociological effects43 Personal Communication43 Emotional Disconnect45 Worldly Effects 50 Media Influence51 Impact on Education52 Impact on USA54 Environmental Implications55 Implications for Wireless Technology56 Wireless Waste56 Analysis59 Health Concerns59 Moral and Ethical Implications61 Conclusion64 Works Cited67 Introduction to Wireless Technology (Wenclewicz) You just arose and peered out your window, and incredibly, your vehicle is secured with 5 creeps of day off. You need to leave for work in a short time however you despite everything need to clean up and prepare things for your day. You don't have the additional opportunity to head outside and warm your vehicle up before you leave, however you have remote beginning and with only a tick of a catch, you can begin your vehicle while you are preparing. We will compose a custom exposition test on Remote Technology or then again any comparative point just for you Request Now This is only one of the numerous things that we may underestimate that remote innovation has given to us on the planet today. Remote innovation is an innovation that has changed the world and how it works. Remote innovation is the capacity to convey between gadgets without wires. Remote innovation is found in numerous gadgets going from PDAs, PCs, GPS units and house cautions. Through the progressions in our innovation, it has gotten less normal to work without this innovation. Remote innovation gives the capacity to move data between focuses without an electrical channel interfacing them. Remote innovation has given us the capacity to have long range correspondences that would not ordinarily occur if wires were required. Understand that remote innovation builds the odds for individuals to take your data. So having a superior comprehension of the different sorts of remote security will expand your capacity to appreciate this innovation with restricted dread. The issue that there is no wire for individuals to get to provides a more noteworthy possibility for security issues. At the point when you are working on a remote system, your correspondence can be observed by any individual who is in the region. Another issue is constraining access to your system by just permitting certain individuals seeing capacity over the remote association. Having the option to restrict the individuals who approach your data over remote is harder than constraining access to the individuals who are truly connected to a turned point on the system. Before the finish of this paper, you will have a superior understanding the general history of remote innovation not just how it changed the world, as we probably am aware it today, yet in addition further, how remote innovation has influenced Germany. You will have a superior comprehension of how remote innovation has helped the German economy just as how it has prompted political force. Germany has made a lot of progression as a nation in remote innovation and in view of remote innovation; they have developed themselves as a country. Outline of Wireless Technology (Wenclewicz) Wireless innovation is the same old thing to us, what we look like at it is what is unique. Glancing back at the early occasions of man there have been various types of remote correspondences that have occurred. Numerous clans utilized drums as a type of correspondence, the message would be sent by pounding on drums. This sound would just travel a short separation so its viability was extremely constrained. A way that the clans conquered this issue was by setting up various focuses and every drummer would recognize the senderÃ¢â¬â¢s message by a progression of thumps on the drum. After the message was affirmed gotten then the message would be sent to the following collector. In the hours of the American Indians, the clans would utilize smoke flags as a type of remote correspondence. The drawback to this type of correspondence was the constrained separation dependent on view. Because of a restricted letters in order and the issues, that the breeze causes would expand the odds that the correspondence would be lost or confounded. Before long followed was the presentation of the semaphore banner. The semaphore banner framework is one used to pass on data a good ways off by utilizing signals with banners, paddles or gloved hands. The drawback to this type of remote correspondence is that it is restricted to view also, and that since this needed to happen in the open the odds of your message being taken is expanded. Science that Drove Wireless Development (Wenclewicz) Ã¢â¬Å"In the nineteenth century, light bars were utilized for short-pull correspondences, especially in military settings. Extremely nitty gritty messages could be transmitted by a coded grouping (Morse code) of flickering lights from sender to beneficiary. Once more, this was viable over constrained separations and given a calm, yet obvious methods for correspondence. Downsides included constrained separation, unapproved gathering of data because of perceivability at different edges, and danger of capture. Security was consistently dubious, so a type of alphabetic encryption was presented as a protect. This necessary an ever-changing code set, alongside unique dealing with and additional opportunity to physically unravel the transmitted message. Besides, the figure code must be kept current at all areas to accomplish accuracy. Ã¢â¬ (Denham, 2009) Wireless innovation has been followed back as ahead of schedule as the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. Remote innovation came about in view of numerous people who all had one normal capacity and that was the capacity to consider some fresh possibilities. A man by the name of James Clerk Maxwell found the study of electromagnetism. Electromagnetism is the connection of positive and negative charges that have met up and controlled by one power. You read Remote Technology in class Article models There are four principle impacts coming about because of these connections, all of which have been unmistakably shown by tests: 1. Electric charges pull in or repulse each other with a power contrarily corresponding to the square of the separation between them: dissimilar to charges draw in, similar to ones repulse. 2. Attractive posts (or conditions of polarization at singular focuses) pull in or repulse ea ch other likewise and consistently come two by two: each North Pole is burdened to a South Pole. 3. An electric flow in a wire makes a roundabout attractive field around the wire, its heading (clockwise or counter-clockwise) contingent upon that of the flow. . A current is instigated in a circle of wire when it is moved towards or away from an attractive field, or a magnet is moved towards or away from it, the heading of current relying upon that of the development. Ã¢â¬Å" (Article Alley, 2008) During this time, the Heinrich Hertz who was a German physicist who facilitated explained and developed the examinations from James Clerk Maxwell. By accomplishing more analyses, Heinrich Hertz helped advance the utilization of radio waves and reception apparatuses. The greatest disclosure that Heinrich Hertz had occurred over a 2-year length from 1886-1888. It was during this time he had the option to demonstrate that electrical vitality could be transmitted at the speed of light as electromagnetic waves. Probably the greatest result from this finding was his capacity to discover that these waves could be energized, refracted and reflected which is like light. Hertz utilized an end-stacked half-wave dipole as the transmitting recieving wire and a full half-wave getting circle working at a frequency of 8 meters to create what is known as short radio waves. He centered the waves with a reflector and indicated their essence by methods for sparkles in the wire circle hole that was a couple of meters away. It was HertzÃ¢â¬â¢ tests combined with Guglielmo MarconiÃ¢â¬â¢s creations, which lead to the introduction of remote innovation. During this time, Marconi had the option to transmit signals without wires for a separation of more than 1 mile. It was not long after this achievement that Marconi was conceded the main patent in 1896 for remote telecommunication. It was in 1897 that the primary remote organization MarconiÃ¢â¬â¢s Wireless Telegraph Company Limited was framed. During this time, Russian Professor Alexander Popov was attempting to make a tempest indicator, and keeping in mind that doing this he discover a gadget that could get radio waves. His innovation permitted mariners to convey correspondence to station ashore, which lead to the primary utilization of radio correspondence to date. Ã¢â¬Å"Nathan Stubblefield, broadly accepted to be the creator of the remote phone gadget over a century prior, was a flighty melon rancher who worked in disengagement from his horse shelter in the lower regions of Kentucky. He portrayed himself as a Ã¢â¬Å"practical rancher, organic product cultivator and circuit tester. Ã¢â¬ His companions depicted him as plain and unassuming in his way, yet mysterious. The main individual he trusted was his 14-year-old child and right hand, Bernard. StubblefieldÃ¢â¬â¢s gadget apparently worked by sound recurrence enlistment. It was made out of an arrangement of wires suspended between metal poles, with the transmitter put on a train carriage or vessel. At the point when a vehicle or vessel approached, a sign was sent through the air to the phone utilizing attractive fields. It could be heard at the opposite finish of the wire
Friday, August 21, 2020
Giving Ethical Alternatives - Essay Example Characteristic items contain Ã¢â¬Å"no counterfeit shading, season, synthetic compounds, additives, saccharine, aspartame, illuminated food and meat delivered without utilization of development hormones or antibioticsÃ¢â¬ (Brewer, 2004). The market has two co-proprietors who are equivalent accomplices. The CEO is the oldest kid who holds a MBA. All relatives work in the market in some area, so this is unquestionably a family-run business, however the market utilizes natural culinary experts, business directors, and other people who create associations with neighborhood ranchers and producers. Items offered incorporate regular or natural nourishments, enhancements, wellbeing and magnificence helps, meats, plants and seed. The two areas offer preparing classes for explicit food classifications on a pivoting plan. The organization has a place with nearby, territorial and national cultivators relationship, with a co-proprietor holding workplaces in two of the associations. In the comp anyÃ¢â¬â¢s statement of purpose is a significant objective of upgrading the nearby economy, which influences neighborhood occupants, by purchasing from neighborhood cultivators however much as could be expected. The announcement proceeds to additionally clarify that purchasing locally likewise dispenses with a great part of the fuel utilization that happens when items are sent the nation over. This aides Providing Ethical Alternatives 2 diminish the natural effect of vehicle emanations. One of the co-proprietors has spoken at congressional hearings a few times to advance marking of all nourishments that are hereditarily adjusted (GMO).
Wednesday, June 17, 2020
Debate About Corporation Tax Paid by Multinationals (Essay Sample) Content: Corporation Tax paid by Multinational CorporationsStudentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s Name:Course + CodeClass:Institution:Date:Debate on Corporation Tax in UKIntroductionThere has been an amplified debate in the United Kingdom about corporate tax issues and specifically around concerns that government revenue from corporate taxes has been reducing due to multinational companies shifting their profits to other countries where they have branches. A statement from one backbench Member of Parliament (MP) in 2013 stated that there is a growing crisis of the national tax system operating in the international business environment, and this calls for radical action. It was observed that the UK was borrowing more than predicted, especially because of lesser corporation tax collections from companies. Issues of morality and the line between tax evasion and avoidance were cited severally. One MP said that tax avoidance should be a matter of law and not moral persuasion, and another still assert ed that companies that avoid tax simply reflect rational behavior. However, there have been different opinions among the committee members of the House of Commons over what constitutes avoidance. These came up partly from a lack of understanding about what the UK is trying to tax and fairly because it could be theoretically hard to define tax avoidance. It has also been unclear how much revenue is mislaid as a result of UK firms transferring profits offshore, not least because there are no good actions (Devereux et al., 2014). The paper proceeds to explore the key elements of the debates on corporate tax paid by multinational corporations in UK as well as how the government can deal with the issue.Amazon, Google, and Starbucks were interrogated by the Public Accounts Committee of the House of Commons on the levels of corporation tax paid by those groups. After years of being overlooked, the whole topic of tax evasion and avoidance has ascended to the top of the political agenda and whether multinational enterprises are paying their "fair share" of tax has become a substance of public concern. Politicians are constantly keen to come up with proposals that fit the public mood, and thus there have been plenty of reports and initiatives in the UK. There is a serious challenge of corporation tax avoidance faced by the UK partly due to the regime tax complexity in the UK, but majorly because the tax system offers multinational companies chances to shift profits between countries in ways that reduce their liabilities in the UK. The House of Lords Economic Affairs Committee opines that this damages the economy and undermines trust in the tax system (King et al., 2010).The happenings in 2012 elevated public and political awareness of multi- nationalsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ transfer pricing practices radically. Much of this came up from the Public Accounts CommitteeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s (PACÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s) annual examination of HMRCÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s accounts, which led to the public questioning o f representatives from Starbucks, Amazon, and Google. The PACÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s s report, released in early December 2012, termed the situation as "outrageousÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . It also called for a change in attitude at HMRC, which was to be more aggressive in policing and prosecuting companies that paid too little tax and to challenge ill practices. In 2013, the potential role of transfer pricing and avoidance of corporate tax remained in the news and very firmly on the political agenda (Grant et al., 2014).The debate on the subject matter encompasses several elements as follows. Firstly, Tax avoidance that commonly involves taking advantage of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"loopholesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ between taxed activities and those not taxed or favorable interpretations of uncertainty in tax legislation. Chances of avoidance also arise because it can be difficult to outline Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"UK profitsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬. Broadly, firms can decrease UK taxable profits by increasing the deductions allowable from taxabl e revenue and by shifting income to a lower-tax authority. HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) defines tax avoidance as bending the rules of the tax system to gain a tax advantage that Parliament never intended. It involves operating within the letter but not the spirit of the law. The reasons why avoidance is hard to characterize precisely and causes much debate is that not everyone agrees on, nor feels obliged to adhere to, the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"spiritÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ of the law. Tax avoidance incorporates a wide range of activities. Firms may reposition their real activities in response to the incentives in the tax system. Such behavioral responses may be greater than the government projected but arguably are not avoidance. Companies may use intra-group prices, embark on wholly artificial transactions or launch tax haven corporations. It is these strategies that are commonly characterized as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"aggressiveÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ or Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"abuseÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ forms of tax avoidance that draw the most criticism. Avoidance can result in less tax revenue being collected than was planned. It can also create alterations between different companies or different investments if some have greater ability to avoid taxes. This is as revealed by the investigation by public accounts committee (PAC) on the books of account of HMRC. The UK experiences a fatal challenge of corporation tax avoidance, partly due to the complexity of the taxation system in the UK, but mainly because the international tax system provides multinational companies openings for shifting profits between countries in ways that reduce their obligations or tax liabilities in the UK. The House of Lords Economic Affairs Committee says that this harms the economy and demoralizes trust in the tax system (Karkinsky et al., 2012).Referring to the report by PAC, some of the companies with scandals on tax avoidance include; Starbucks, which made sales of ÃâÃ £400m in the UK, but paid no corporation tax. It moved some money to a Dutch sister company in royalty payments, bought coffee beans from Switzerland and paid high-interest rates to borrow from other parts of the business. Amazon, had sales in the UK of ÃâÃ £3.35bn in 2011, but only stated a "tax expense" of ÃâÃ £1.8m. And Google's UK unit paid the only ÃâÃ £6m to the Treasury in 2011 on UK turnover of ÃâÃ £395m. FacebookÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s latest accounts filed at Companies House shows it made a pre-tax loss of ÃâÃ £28.5m in the year 2014. However, it is recorded to have offset 362 staffs from the UK their wages a great amount. The resultant pre-tax loss on their UK accounts permitted it to pay next to nothing in corporation tax. However, the company confirmed that all their staff whose bonuses were disbursed remitted their income tax afterward. This definitely would have increased the tax take for the UK exchequer to more than ÃâÃ £14m, compared to the ÃâÃ £1.5m it would have received on the net profit that the co mpany would have otherwise banked. It is more pressing whether the company only made the ÃâÃ £105m revenue it officially posted in the UK last year as it reported $2.9bn (ÃâÃ £1.9bn) globally. Avoidance of corporation tax causes loss of revenue to the Exchequer. It also means an irregular playing field for trade in the UK in that firms based at home remit corporation tax while multinationals escape it. Open avoidance also saps trust in the tax system entirely. Continued effective taxation depends on agreement, which requires taxes to be broadly accepted as fair. In contemporary democratic societies where public expenditure ranges up to half of GDP or more, the related high levels of tax make the agreement more offending (UK parliament, 2014).According to the debate also, HMRC has been mentioned as having had a problem in their accounts after examination by PAC. Due to this fact the UK government stipulated the responsibilities of HMRC, which included; safeguarding the flow o f money to the Exchequer through the collection, compliance, and enforcement activities, making sure that there is cash available to facilitate public services. HMRC should as well facilitate legitimate international trade, and protect the UKÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s fiscal, economic, social and physical security within and at the border as well as collect UK trade statistics. It is their mandate to administer Statutory Payments such as statutory sick pays and maternity pay. Help individuals and families with a certain amount of money through payment of tax credits. They must aim to administer the Government Banking Service and the tax system in the simplest, customer focused and efficient way. The HMRC should, therefore, ensure that taxes are collected. HMRC has not sufficiently challenged multinationalsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ noticeable artificial tax structures. It is acceptable that HMRC is limited by funds, but it is strange that it has not been more challenging the GoogleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s corporate arrange ments given the vast disparity between where profit is produced and where tax is paid. Variations between the form of the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s structure and the material of its activities only came to light through the efforts of investigative journalists and whistleblowers. Any common sense reading of HMRCÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s guidance and tests suggests HMRC should strongly question GoogleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s claim that it is acting lawfully. In disparity to the evidence given previously, Google has also conceded that its engineers in the UK are contributing to product development and creating economic value in the UK. It is important to note that HMRC has never confronted an internet-based company in the Courts on the question of its permanent establishment (Dharmapala, 2008).Clausing, (2009) points out that UK tax rules are complicated and have not kept pace with the way businesses operate globally and through the internet. While people are apprehensive about HMRCÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s effectiveness in ta ckling tax avoidance, they also admit that it has to operate within ...
Monday, May 18, 2020
PART 3: Explain, in as much detail as you believe necessary, class-consciousness, as offered by Karl Marx. Discuss the similarities and differences of class-consciousness and collective conscience and indicate to what, if any, extent, the two concepts are interchangeable. Do you believe class-consciousness is a useful tool for understanding social relations among classes, today? Use examples to illustrate your answer and thoroughly explain why or why not. * One very complex issue of today is the idea of social change. This paper will introduce the lives of Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim and how they both use different theories to introduce the structure of modern society. Each special theory explains how society stays stable and whatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Therefore, organic solidarity is based on difference and change where the norms are frequently changing creating confusion making it look like there are no norms anymore. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s example of organic solidarity can be Iraq. Looking at Iraq, you had a strong authoritarian government undone of power. The government in place has little power. What would Durkheim say is the reason? Its in the collective consciousness. Iraq doesnt have a collective consciousness anymore. It has a bunch of different elites all of whom follow their own norms and do what they want. These norms are different. There is nothing to guide the whole nation into solidarity, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no unity and no r eason to pull the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s society together. Karl Marx, a German philosopher, sociologist, economist and revolutionary socialist whoÃ¢â¬â¢s work in economics laid the basis for the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s more of a social conflict. He believed that workers should demand more just treatment and ask for higher wages. He introduces the term class-consciousness where the proletariats realize and become aware of exploitation. They would become conscious of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s place in a system of social classes and where the capacity to act on its own rational interests. Marx believed that the main point of social struggle was based on the leader of the ruling class whom where the bourgeoisies.Show MoreRelatedAnalysis of Marx, Weber, and Durkheims Views Essay1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe sociological views ofÃ the three founding fathers; Karl Marx,Ã Max Weber, andÃ Emile DurkheimÃ all assert that various aspects of our lifestyle are fully a product of the society in which we live. Each theorist views the impact of society and its manifestation of our identity in a different way. All three of these men used the Industrial RevolutionÃ and capitalism to shape their theories of social identity, especially the identity created by capitalisms division of labor; the owners of the meansRead More Comparisons of the Ontological Positions of Marx, Durkheim and Weber836 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Comparisons of the ontological positions of Marx, Durkheim and Weber. Presenting any comparisons of Marx, Durkheim and Weber necessitates a homogeneous delineation of ontology. Megill (2002) defined ontology as Ã¢â¬Å"the field of investigation that attempts to arrive at conclusions regarding the fundamental nature of realityÃ¢â¬ (Megill 2002, p.38), and it is this definition that will delineate the positioning of these theorists. Karl Marx represented a pragmatic and practical positioning that identifiedRead MoreSociological Theory3361 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesinterpret identical things in different ways more than one perspective could be used at any time. These perspectives include: Functionalism, Marxism, Feminism, Interactionism and Postmodernism. In this paper I will be comparing and contrasting the Marxist, Functionalist and Postmodernist perspectives and applying them to analysing the effect of the mass media upon society. Is the mass media used as a way of controlling society? To begin with I will discuss what is meant by the term mass media, IRead MoreThe Functionalist Explanation of the Role of Education in Modern Society621 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesRole of Education in Modern Society I will discuss the functionalists theories in comparison to those of the Marxist and Interactionists. Functionalists believe that all in society serves a purpose and its a positive function. They also believe that education is a way of achieving in society; it develops people so that it gives them the opportunities in society (workplace). 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What is meant by that is that we are all products of our upbringings and learn through socialisation what our beliefs areRead MoreThe Usefulness of the Analogy Between Society and a Biological Organism892 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSociety and a Biological Organism One set of sociologist that use the Biological or Organic analogy of societies are the Functionalists. Functionalism first emerged in Europe in the 19th Century. The French sociologist Emile Durkheim was the most influential of all the early functionalists. The theory became the dominant theoretical perspective in the 1940s and 1950. The functionalist theory is that within society there are many small parts that have to work Read MoreThe Problem of Definition of Religion Essay2618 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesas social solidarity, value consensus and harmony and integration between its parts. Durkheim ======== Durkheim studied Aborigines. He called their religion toteism. Each clan has a totem, which is seen as sacred. Worshipping the totem is seen as worshipping God. However Durkheim sees it as also worshipping society. Ã · Worshipping society Durkheim argued that in worshipping God, people are in fact worshipping society. Society is more important and Read MoreStructural Consensus And Conflict Theories Of Social Action2201 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagescompare and contrast structural consensus and conflict theories of social action such as Durkheimian, Parsonian, Marxist and Weberian with interpretivist perspectives. The aim is to outline the main features of each theory whilst critically analysing the similarities and differences between them. It will also examine the relevance of these theories within modern day society. Durkheim was one of the most influential sociologists in relation to the functionalist theories which stated society consisted
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Anabolic Steroids in Sports The market for top performing athletes in sports in the 21st century is a competitive one. Athletes are pushed to, be stronger, an heal from injuries faster. With the pressure to do well and get picked up by a professional team of sorts goes without saying that hard work is a must to elevate ones professional athletic career, but what if one has reached a plateau or hit a wall in a training regimen and just can not seem to push through? When some athletes hit the proverbial wall when training they turn to steroids. Ruth Wood in an article titled Anabolic Steroids: A Fatal Attraction? Writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. Despite bans on steroid use, Olympic athletes, professional cyclists, American baseball players, and even racehorses have tested positive for AAS. However, AAS are no longer the exclusive province of elite athletes. Among school seniors in the United States (18 years of age), the lifetime incidence for ster oid use (4.0%) is comparable to that for crack cocaine (3.6%) or heroin (1.8%). Today, it is estimated that over 3million people may have used AASÃ¢â¬ (Wood 227). Athletes have used Anabolic Steroids for years in bodybuilding as well as recently in baseball. Anabolic steroids affect the body by making it easier to build muscle mass, but by doing so also affect items like ones heart and reproductive system. Ã¢â¬Å"Abuse of anabolic steroids to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy is widespread amongstShow MoreRelated Anabolic Steroids Essay2897 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesAnabolic Steroids Of the diagnostic methods available to veterinarians, the clinical chemistry test has developed into a valuable aid for localizing pathologic conditions. This test is actually a collection of specially selected individual tests. With just a small amount of whole blood or serum, many body systems can be analyzed. Some of the more common screenings give information about the function of the kidneys, liver, and pancreas and about muscle and bone disease. There are many blood chemistry
Question: Explain the development Of Marketing Objectives, Strategies And Tactics For Jaguar Land Rover. Answer: Marketing objectives: Marketing objectives are defined as the set of goals determined by an organization with an aim of promoting its services and / or products to the potential customers which should be achieved within a specified time period. Marketing objectives of a company for a particular product may include the SMART strategy (Elliott, Rundle-Thiele and Waller, 2012). For the company Jaguar Land Rover, SMART objectives include: S Specific the aim of the company was to be the Best Manufacturer in its home country. M Measureable the objective should be measurable, such that, the progress of the company be understood. For Jaguar, its objective is measurable as to win the award of Best Manufacturer takes the company to a higher level. A Actionable only to set an aim is not the appropriate application of SMART theory, but to perform accordingly to achieve the goal is the main objective. Jaguar started to work hard to achieve their aim. R Realistic the aim should be realistic, that is, practical and achievable. For Jaguar, the aim was realistic that is, to be the best in its home country. T Time bound within one year, the company aimed to be the best, and in the year 2014 only, Jaguar has been named as the Best Manufacturer. Target and positioning: Target: Target means to achieve the specified goals, which are pre-defined by the company. There are three types of target. They are: when there is no major difference between customer characteristics, then the company usually decides to develop only one marketing mix for the whole target market. Companies that lack marketing orientation might follow this strategy (Grewal and Levy, 2012). For example by the year 2020, jaguar decided to create lower carbon vehicle. in differentiated marketing strategy, the differences between marketing segments are exploited by designing a particular marketing mix for each and every segment (Kotler and Keller, 2012). Here separate brands are formed for each segment. For example the owner of the brand Land Rover is more or less 10 years younger than the medium age of Jaguar brand. This difference is made by the company by launching brands for more adventurous, design and style oriented consumers. it involves designing of a promotional message that is related to the benefits desired by a particular segment as the company understands the requirement and motivation of a particula r segments customers, thus design a specialized marketing mix (Kotler and Keller, 2012). This is occurred because sometimes company may not be able to serve all the segments. For example Jaguar Land Rover is the SUV, i.e. sports utilizing vehicle is for specific targeted customers. Positioning: Product positioning is position of a product in consumers mind. So the marketers design appropriate marketing mixes to create their desired product positions (Pride and Ferrell, 2012). Positioning strategies can take any of the following forms or a combination of the following: Specific product attributes Benefits offered Usage occasions Classes of users But the company Jaguar follows the USP theme for product positioning that is, Unique Selling Proposition theme, which includes the rubric Alive. This logo not only represents the refreshment of the logo, but also a global advertisement of largest branding campaign. The new logo of Jaguar brand is Leaper and Growler having a new font and a new corporate identification represents the refreshed image and the underline confidence the company has in its existing products and even the vision the company has for its future. Market Attractiveness: The term is used to describe the possibilities of high profit one might obtain by investing in a market or business (D. Alkire, 2014). Generally, the companies like Jaguar before entering into the market like U.S. perform various types of analysis to determine the prospect of the company, by identifying the size of the market, depth of the market, and the number of potential consumers. Report of all these analysis was positive, thus today Jaguar has became the Best Manufacturer in U.K. Competitive Position Of Jaguar In The Market: Jaguar Land Rover made record sales in the year 2013. It beats the sales of its competitors Mercedes and Audi in the market of U.K. the Land Rover brand sold about 55,000 vehicles in U.K., which is about 25 % more than the previous year. This indicates the smooth progress of the company Jaguar in its competitive market. Positioning of market segmentation: In each segment of market, consumers share same type of likings. Division and subdivision of a huge homogeneous market into distinguishable segments based on similar wants, or demand is called market segmentation (McDonald and Dunbar, 2012). It is of three types: Homogeneous preferences Here all the customers have of similar likings. Diffused preferences It means all of the customers are having different types of needs and likings. Clustered preferences Here, the firm gets three choices it might position in the centre with a aim to hop in all segments; it might have a aim to occupy the largest segment of the market or several brands may be developed for each different market segment. Jaguar follows the third option, thus it has launched various brands, each for different market segment. The targeted market of Jaguar consists of individuals who are having age of more than 40 years and have a record of high net worth retail customers. Business level strategies: Business level strategy means the way, by which a firm competes, concentrates on meeting competition, protect market share and earn profit at business unit level through one of the following methods: Cost Leadership: A particular company achieves cost-leadership when it becomes the industrys lowest-cost provider (Lemper, 2012). It must achieve a cost advantage in ways difficult for rivals to copy. A cost advantage can be achieved in 2 ways: a) by reducing the cost better than the competitors. b) By revamping value chain for bypassing costly activities. A cost leadership is appropriate when: Competition of price among sellers in very high Many sellers selling standardized commodity-type product Few ways to effectively differentiate products Product usage is similar among buyers Large number of buyers and have strong bargaining power An entry barrier is needed to discourage potential new entrants in the industry. Differentiation: Successful differentiation allows a firm to Command a price premium and thus avoid price competition, sales increases, earn loyalty of consumers. Differentiation improves profitability. A company can be differentiated according to lines of products, services, channels, people or image. Products are classified based on features, style or design. Service differentiation can be gained through speedy, convenient or careful delivery. When buyers are unable to discriminate between product brands, they look for company image. For example, logo and symbol of Jaguar provides brand recognition and image of the company. Focus: A firm concentrates on very small or narrow market segment called niche market. This strategy is appropriate if the niche market is profitable and has good growth prospects; industry leaders are not keen on a presence in the niche market; industry leaders are not willing to address the highly specialized needs of niche market which will divert attention from their more important and bigger segments; the industry has many niche markets being served by different firms; few rivals are attempting to enter the niche market (Strohhecker and Grler, 2012). Strategy implementation and control: The translation of some specific strategy into actions of organization with the aim to achieve strategic objectives is known as strategic implementation (Deng, 2012). This implementation is done for the betterment of the company regarding the performance of the company and the competitive advantage. Organizational structure provides additional value to tasks, employee roles, quality, but it is not sufficient to motivate employees, thus, organizational control is also required. This control provides managers with motivational incentives for employees, feedback on employees and performance of the organization. By applying this organizational control, Jaguar has succeeded in its business. Marketing Mix Programme: : Product, Price, Place and Promotion are the elements of 4 Ps. Product: There are various products or models of Jaguar with various facilities, like Jaguar XJ(X351) which is a luxury passenger car with a 4 door saloon. These various products of Jaguar attracts customers. Price: Price of a particular car depends on various features like types of engine oor model. In most cases a premium price has to be paid by the consumers for a new XJ because of a strong brand loyalty or class association (Kotler and Sheth, 2012). Promotion: in case of Jaguar, promotion takes place by magazines, newspapers, business reports. Dealerships themselves are one of the important sources of promotion. Place: Jaguar is considered as a worldwide company having high sales and strong network of distribution. Ford acquired Jaguar in 1989 which sheared some common dealerships with Land Rover. 7Ps: People, Process and Physical evidence are the elements of extended service mix. The extended market mix is used by Jaguar for the betterment of the company. People: The term people refers to all those persons who are involved in the process of production and consumption of a service. They include the front-line employees of a service organization and the customers purchasing the service (Martin and Schouten, 2012). Recruiting the people with the right attitude is extremely necessary for service organizations. In Jaguar, the sales persons play the main role, as they interact with the customers and thus bring in revenue for the company. Process: A process indicates the methods of producing and delivering a service. It measures the extent of involvement and participation of customers reargued in service, creation and delivery (Kotler and Armstrong, 2012). Therefore, in Jaguar, the process determines the role of the service person and the consumers. Physical Evidence: Physical evidences of Jaguar include the services provided by the company towards its customers, the loyalty, and also the comfort. All these services are intangible in nature. Routes To Competitive Advantage Creation: Jaguar is a very special brand, having proud heritage to car enthusiasts. Thus dealership staff should retain the product knowledge in order to embody the brand with the aim to deliver well customer experiences. The main responsibility of protecting the prestige of the brand lies with the employees who are in frontline customer contact (BratiÃâÃ¢â¬ ¡, 2011). These experiences of brand are seemed to be the main for competitive advantage. Thus, the focus is on the quality people in dealership department, as this is the key to future success of the company Jaguar. Achieving Differentiation: Substantial potential differentiation is the differentiation achieved by the company Jaguar, than the other companies, due to the differences in the products and the services provided by Jaguar, positive long term impact on the entity helps in value addition, and the qualitative factors are difficult to defend. Offensive And Defensive Competitive Strategies: In Offensive marketing strategy, it attacks the weaknesses of the competitive and emphasized companys strengths, but never the industry leader (Krstic and Becic, 2011). For example Jaguar by using offensive strategy targets the products of other established companies of the same industry and thus introduces new products. When a company seeks to introduce better products in the market than the existing one, it is called defensive strategy (Lok, 2005). Jaguar uses both of them for the betterment of the organization. Competing Through The New Marketing Mix: The new marketing mix strategy involves the expended market fix (Glisby and Holden, 2011). That means Jaguar used to follow 4 Ps but later for betterment of the company started to use 7 Ps. Thus Jaguar started to focus on the People, Process and Physical evidence. Competing Through Innovation: Innovation is the main objective of the company Jaguar. Thus, the company has enriched so far. Jaguar Land Rover won the Altair Enlighten Award in the competition of the year 2014, for the implementation and development of the concept of its premium lightweight architecture design on latest Range Rover (Orstavik, 2014). Competing Through Superior Customer Management: The major competitive advantages can be achieved through customer satisfaction like after sales servicing, word of mouth, higher prices and many more. This is the thumb rule followed by Jaguar to gain, retain and maintain customers, and thus can easily manage the customers of the company. Internal And External Development: The company Jaguar is internally well developed, as it has huge assets, and has the internal strength of a large number of employees, high brand value, culture identity is rich and has increased R D and marketing investments. External development includes the strategic allowances and joint ventures. Strategic allowances mean a company partners with other in order to earn advantage by working together (Larraneta, 2012). For example, the automotive division of Alibaba Group Holding Ltd. has entered into alliances with Jaguar to extend its sales and to provide best customer services in China. For extension of the business, British company Jaguar Land Rover make a joint venture with a Chinese company Chery Automobile and established its first manufacturing unit in China. Conclusion: Thus it can be concluded by analyzing the marketing objectives, strategies and tactics of the company Jaguar Land Rover that the company is running smoothly and successfully in its home country U.K. and also in the overseas. The company has the objective to be the Best Manufacturer, best in customer service, and best analyst of the market to gain new customers from different segments and to maintain the existing customers by launching new products and modifying the existing ones. 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